Evaluation of pharmacological potentials of Jatropha curcas Linn sap Euphobiaceae family

S. Abubakar, B. O. Akanbi, C. Osuji, O. O. Olajide, E. A. Phillip


Objective: The study focused on qualitative screening of phytochemical constituents of Jatropha curcas crude sap and its effectiveness on some pathogenic bacteria namely, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The anti-oxidant potentiality of the crude sap was also evaluated.

Methods: The sap of J. curcas was collected directly into sterile microfuge tubes after detaching the leaf stalks from the stem, the crude sap (sample) was taken to the laboratory and kept refrigerated at 40C. The crude sap was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening using standard procedures. The susceptibility test of the sap was carried out using well diffusion method. The anti-oxidant potentiality of the sap was also evaluated using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay.

Results: Based on qualitative phytochemical screening, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, glycosides, and steroid were confirmed present while flavonoids, saponins, balsams were absent. The sap showed appreciable activities against the tested strains of bacteria. The highest zone of inhibition was shown on S. typhi (17 mm) at the crude sap and the lowest zone of inhibition was on P. aeruginosa and E. coli (11 mm) at 1:2 dilution. The antioxidant potential of the crude sap evaluated by UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 517 nm using inhibition of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) is less potent in comparison with Vitamin C, however, it showed increased in activity with decreased concentration.

Conclusions: The J. curcas sap is very effective against all the organisms. Despite the low antioxidant property of the sap, J. curcas sap can be said to have a broad spectrum action. Based on this preliminary work the use of J. curcas to treat diseases caused by microorganisms still remains promising.


Pharmacological potential, Jatropha curcas, Phytochemical screening, Antimicrobial activity, Antioxidant activity

Full Text:



Kalimuthu K, Vijayakumar S, Senthilkumar R. Antimicrobial Activity of the Biodiesel Plant, Jatropha Curcas L. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences. 2010;1(3):1-5.

Ekundayo FO, Adeboye CA, Ekundayo EA. Antimicrobial activities and phytochemical screening of pignut (Jatrophas curcas Linn.) on some pathogenic bacteria Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2011;5(7):1261-4.

Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Anthony S. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0; 2009. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/ sites/treedbs/treedatabases.asp. Accessed 10 March 2016.

Samba ANS, Bassirou D, Moustapha D, Marone D, Abdou SS, Massaer N, et al. Jatropha curcas: Seed germination and propagation methods Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA) - Laboratoire National des Recherches sur les Productions Végétales (LNRPV). Route des Hydrocarbures, Bel-Air, BP 3120 Dakar; 2006: 134-224.

Burkill HM. The useful plants of west tropical Africa. (Families EJ). Royal Botanical Gardens Kew; 1994: 90-94.

Mishra S, Vijayakumar M, Ojha S, Verma A. Antidiabetic effect of Jatropha curcas L. leaves extract in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Int J Pharm Sci. 2010;2(1):482-7.

Awe AB, Baiyewu RA, Fatade BO, Adeleke TO. Phyto-chemical and antimicrobial evaluation of the leaves of Jatropha curcas. In: Onyekwelu J, Adekunle VAJ. and Oke DO. (eds.). Proceedings of the 2nd biennial National Conference of the Forests and Forest Products Society held at the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria between 26th and 29th of April 2010; 2010. p. 445–9.

Dada EO, Ekundayo FO, Makanjuola OO. Antibacterial Activities of Jatropha curcas (LINN) on Coliforms Isolated from Surface Waters in Akure, Nigeria. International journal of biomedical science. 2014;10(1):25-30.

Trease GE, Evans WC. Phamacognosy, vol. 13, London: Baillvera Tindall; 2004; 309–707.

Sofowora A. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. Spectrum books, Ibadan 1993; 150.

Clauditz A, Resch A, Wieland KP, Peschel A, Götz, F. Staphyloxanthin plays a role in the fitness of Staphylococcus aureus and its ability to cope with oxidative stress. Infection and immunity. 2006; 74(8):4950–3.

Oyeleke SB, Manga BS. Essentials of Laboratory Practical in Microbiology. 1st edition. Tobest publisher; 2008: 94.

Cheesbrough, M. District laboratory practice in Tropical countries. Cambridge University press, London. 2000;2:76-100.

Okoli RI, Aigbe O, Ohafu-Obode JO, Mensah JK. Medicinal herbs used for managing some common ailments among Esan people Edo State, Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2007;6(5):470-90.

Okoli S, Iroegbu CU. In vitro antibacterial activities. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2004;4(9):946-52.

Doughari J, Pukuma M, De N. Antibacterial effects of Balanites aegyptiaca L. Drel. And Moringa oleifera Lam. on Salmonella typhi. Afr J Biotechnol. 2007;6(19):2212-5.

Vollekova AD, Kostalova, Sochorova R. Isoquinoline Alkaloids from Mahonia aquifolium stem bark as active against Malassezia Sp. Folia Microbiology. 2001;46:107–11.

Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C. Use of free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensm Wiss Technology. 1995;28:25-30.

Ayoola GA, Coker HAB. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant Activities of some selected medicinal plants used for malaria therapy in South-Western Nigeria. Tropical Pharm Res. 2008;7(3):1019-24.

Duke JA, Ayensu ES. Medicinal Plants of the World, Reference Publications, Algonac, Mich, USA; 1985.

Raquel FE. Bacterial lipid composition and antimicrobial efficacy of cationic steroid compounds. Biochemica et Biophysica Acta. 2007;2500-9.

Okwu DE. Evaluation of chemical composition of medicinal plants belonging to Euphorbiaceae. Pak Vet J. 2001;14:160-2.

Nobori T, Miurak K, Wu DJ, Takabayashik LA, Carson DA. Deletion of cyclin-dependent kinase-4 inhibitor gene in multiple human cancers. Nature. 1994;46:753-6.

Antherden LM. Textbook of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 8th edn, Oxford University Press, London; 1969: 813-814.

Stray F. The Natural Guide to Medicinal herbs And Plants. Tiger Books International, London; 1998: 12-16.

Okwu DE, Okwu ME. Chemical composition of Spondias mombin linn. Plant parts. J Sustain Agric Environ. 2004;6(2):140-7.

Nyarko AA, Addy ME. Effects of aqueous extract of Adenia cissampeloides on blood pressure and serum analyte of hypertensive patients. Phytotherapy Res. 1990;4(1):25-8.

Compean KL, Ynalvez RA. Antimicrobial activity of plant Secondary metabolites: A Review. Res J Med Plant. 2014;8(5):204-13.

Savoi D. Plant-derived antimicrobial compounds: alternatives to antibiotics. Future microbial. 2012:7;979-90.

Cathrine L, Nagarajan NP. Preliminary phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of Vitex leucoxylon L.F. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research. 2010;3(2):231-340.

Okwu DE. Phytochemicals and vitamin content of indigenous species of southeastern Nigeria. J Sustain Agric Environ. 2004;6(1):30-7.

Just MJ, Recio MC, Giner RM, Cueller MU, Manez S, Billia AR, Rios JL. Anti-inflammatory activity of unusual lupine saponins from Bupleurum fruticescens. 1998;64:404-7.

Sodipo OA, Akiniyi JA, Ogunbamosu JU. Studies on certain on certain characteristics of extracts of bark of Pansinystalia macruceras (K schemp) picrre Exbeille. Global J Pure Appl Sci. 2000;6:83-7.

Maoulainine B, Jelassi L, Hassen A, Ould MO, Salem OS, Boukhari A. 2012. Antioxidant proprieties of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of Euphorbia helioscopia (L.) aerial parts. Inter Food Res J. 2012;19(3):1125-30.

Moein MR, Moein S, Ahmadizadeh S. Radical scavenging and reducing power of Salvia mirzayanii subfractions. Molecules. 2008;13:2804-13.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Pharmaceutical and Biological Evaluations

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License


© Copyright 2018 - Pharmaceutical and Biological Evaluations